Speakers

Colin Armstrong
President & CEO
HTEC

Colin Armstrong, P.Eng. – President, CEO, Director

Colin has been leading HTEC for 4 years and has been involved since its inception as a director and investor. He is a professional mechanical engineer with over 25 years of experience in pressure vessels, product development project management, business development, government funding and growing startup companies.

Prior to leading HTEC, Colin was the lead developer and Director of the Integrated Waste Hydrogen Utilization Project for Sacré-Davey Engineering. This project was a $19M, six year project involving many aspects of the new hydrogen energy market including hydrogen processing, distribution, stations, vehicles and stationary fuel cell power systems. While at Sacre-Davey, Colin was also instrumental in developing the hydrogen fueling project for the 20 fuel cell buses operated in Whistler British Columbia.

From 1993 to 2001, Colin was an investor and the lead engineer for the startup Dynetek Industries (DNK.TO) who developed leading edge high pressure carbon fiber hydrogen and natural gas storage cylinders.

Colin has been on the Board of Directors of the Canadian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association and S2G BioChemicals Inc since 2011.

Drianne Benner
Managing Director
Appomattox Advisory

Drianne Benner joined Appomattox Advisory as Managing Director in 2010. She is responsible for client and consultant service and marketing communications. Prior to joining Appomattox, Drianne was the Director of Global Marketing for Cadogan Management, a global fund of hedge funds manager. Previously, she managed marketing and institutional consultant relations at U.S. Trust, where she assisted in the development of the multimanager platform for the firm. Earlier she worked for a global asset manager in a variety of roles including institutional and consultant relations to some of the largest U.S. pension funds and as a manager of portfolios in an enhanced quantitative strategy. She is a CFA Charterholder and a member of the New York Society of Security Analysts. Drianne serves on the Board of Peconic Green Growth as well as on the Philanthropy committee of the Peconic Land Trust. 

 

Libby Bernick
Senior Vice President, North America
Trucost

Libby Bernick - Senior Vice President, North America

Libby manages Trucost’s North American business, and leads the regional team responsible for Financial Institution services and Corporate services in the North American region.  She also manages large key accounts and is part of Trucost’s senior management team.  She has worked for over 25 years helping businesses to integrate environmental information into their decision-making processes, and has led the development and implementation of numerous decision-support tools and programs at multinational corporations.  Her business experience includes multi-year assignments on new product development teams commercializing the launch of greener products and as the environmental manager within a production facility.  An author of numerous articles and frequent speaker at international industry events and forums, Libby is a recognized expert in environmental reporting, greener product development, and environmental supply chain issues.   Prior to joining Trucost, Libby was Vice President at UL Environment responsible for its global sustainability services business, and Director of PE International Five Winds’ Consumer Products & Retail Sector.  Libby holds a M.A.S. in Civil (Environmental) Engineering and a B.A. in Chemistry and Biology from the University of Delaware. She is a licensed Professional Engineer and is LEED AP accredited by the U.S. Green Building Council.

Ben Bingham
Founder & CEO
3Sisters Sustainable Management LLC

After twelve years managing investment portfolios, Ben Bingham assisted in the formation and founding of 3Sisters Sustainable Management LLC, a Registered Investment Advisor (RIA) along with its research arm: www.wikipositive.org and its proprietary fund family: Scarab Funds. From 2000 to 2007, he had developed a unique portfolio management strategy for socially conscious investors at Legg Mason and Citigroup/Smith Barney.

Motivated to help a network of social entrepreneurs and philanthropists who were dissatisfied with the lack of direct positive impact found in mutual funds or screened portfolios, Mr. Bingham changed his emphasis to positive screening. Using traditional asset allocation and other risk management tools he has found it beneficial financially, socially and environmentally to look for companies, social enterprises and impact funds with positive stories that meet current problems with long-term solutions.  

Mr. Bingham is a Fellow of Economists for Peace and Security (EPS). He is a member of the Investor’s Circle and the Social Venture Network, and, as a social entrepreneur/investor/money manager, draws on broad experience from hands-on management experience at two technology start-ups, one in biological healthcare, and the other a global workflow solution provider.

 Mr. Bingham is a Series 7 and Series 66 licensed investment professional, with a background in philanthropy. In the seventies and early eighties he was a founder of a mixed use residential community with special needs students and apprentices, raising approximately $1M to fund a start up furniture production, farm and housing. His understanding for the ecology of how things work was also schooled by 10 years of work as a trained bio-dynamic farmer in the 70’s and 40 years of marriage, with five grown children and four granddaughters. His training in Gestalt psychology may also help in understanding the market! He recently joined the Board of the Mariah Fenton Gladis Foundation to support her therapeutic psychological work. He attended Groton School, Yale University and Emerson College in England. He is working on two books and writes regularly for The Huffington Post.

Ron Dizy
Managing Director, Advanced Energy Institute at MaRS
MaRS

Ron is the Managing Director of the Advanced Energy Institute at MaRS, focusing on two priorities.  Frist, by fostering the adoption of innovative energy technologies in Ontario and Canada, the Advanced Energy Centre is helping our energy systems become more cost effective, more reliable and more resilient to change and opportunity.   The second priority is to leverage and share those successes and experiences into global markets to drive international opportunities for Ontario and Canadian energy innovators. 

He was previously the President and CEO of ENBALA Power Networks, a smart grid technology company that offers grid optimization services to utilities and system operators to increase the overall efficiency and reliability of the power system.

Ron is viewed as a thought-leader on innovation opportunities that lie within the evolution of the modern power system. Based on his well-respected perspective on the smart grid, he was recruited to the executive committee of the board for the Ontario Energy Association and the Association for Demand Response and Smart Grid. He was also elected chair of the Corporate Partners Committee of the Ontario Smart Grid Forum.

His entire career has been focused on bringing new technologies to evolving markets, including spending nearly ten years as a venture capitalist (both as a direct investor and as a pension fund manager), co-founding a company specializing in artificial intelligence and gathering experience in major consulting firms.  Ron holds a degree in Industrial Engineering from the University of Toronto. 

Peter C. Fusaro
Chairman
GLOBAL CHANGE ASSOCIATES INC.

Peter C. Fusaro is Chairman of Global Change Associates in New York and is the best selling author of What Went Wrong at Enron. His three most recent books have been Cut Carbon, Grow Profits, Energy & Emissions: Collision or Convergence and Energy & Environmental Hedge Funds: The New Investment Paradigm. Peter is an energy industry thought leader noted for his keen insights in emerging energy and environmental financial markets. He has been on the forefront of energy and environmental change for over 30 years focusing on. oil, gas, power, coal, emissions, carbon trading and renewable energy markets. Peter is currently advising in the clean energy technology arena. Peter was recently selected for Who's Who in America. He coined the term "Green Trading" and holds the Wall Street Green Trading Summit with Reuters in New York each spring. He is also a well known expert on Asia Pacific energy and environmental markets. He co-founded the Energy Hedge Fund Center LLC (www.energyhedgefunds.com) in 2004. Peter graduated with an MA in international relations from Tufts University and a BA from Carnegie-Mellon University.

Evan Harvey
Managing Director of Corporate Sustainability
NASDAQ OMX

EVAN HARVEY is Managing Director of Corporate Sustainability for NASDAQ OMX. He is responsible for gathering, analyzing, reporting, and improving key metrics across the global organization, as well as managing investor and issuer company outreach on corporate sustainability topics, practices, and partnerships. Evan directs the research, analysis, and disclosure of all ESG reports, including the Global Reporting Initiative, Carbon Disclosure Project, and the United Nations Global Compact Communication of Progress. Evan serves on the Board of Directors for the UNGC U.S. Network and on the Advisory Board for SASB. He holds a B.A. and an M.A. from the University of Texas, and lives outside Washington DC

Erika Karp
Founder & CEO
Cornerstone Capital Group

Erika Karp, Founder and CEO, Cornerstone Capital Group

Erika Karp is the Founder and CEO of Cornerstone Capital Inc.  The mission of her firm is to apply the principles of sustainable finance to facilitate the flow of capital around the world.  In offering investment banking, investment management, research and strategic consulting services, Cornerstone works with corporations, financial institutions, and individuals promoting new research in the field of ESG (Environmental, Social and Governance) analysis, and facilitating capital introductions for companies around the world engaged in sustainable business practices.    

Prior to launching Cornerstone, Erika was Managing Director and Head of Global Sector Research at UBS Investment Bank where she Chaired the UBS Global Investment Review Committee and managed a global team of analysts and strategists.  Erika served on the UBS Securities Research Executive Committee and the Environmental and Human Rights Committee of the UBS Group Executive Board.

Erika is a founding Board member of the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB), and is a member of the World Economic Forum (WEF) Global Agenda Council on Financing and Capital. She is the advisor to the Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) Market Based Approaches program, and sits on the Program Design Advisory Council for Harvard Business School's Executive Education Program. Her work has been featured by Bloomberg Businessweek, Euromoney, the Financial Times, Investor Relations Magazine, and Forbes. For driving collaboration across the capital markets, she has been named among the nation's "Top 50 Women in Wealth" by AdvisorOne; and in 2014 she was named among the “GOOD 100” and one of the “Purpose Economy 100.” 

Arrun Kapoor
Managing Director
SJF Ventures

Arrun Kapoor is the Managing Director for SJF Ventures’ New York City office and a Ventures Advisor to the SJF Institute. He is on the Board of Think Through Learning and FieldView Solutions and a Board Observer to ServiceChannel and Truist. Kapoor was most recently with Bain & Company in London and Delhi where he launched the firm’s internal green practice initiatives. He worked with Bain’s private equity consulting practice and gained experience in a range of cleantech-related industries. Prior to Bain, he was a founding member and Manager with a successful consulting start-up in New York and London. He holds a Master’s in International Political Economics from the London School of Economics and completed a BA from New York University with an economics and business focus. 

Charlotte Kim
Partner
WILSON SONSINI GOODRICH & ROSATI

Charlotte Kim is a partner in the New York office of Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati (WSGR). Her practice focuses on global corporate finance with particular expertise in the energy, healthcare, life sciences and technology sectors. Charlotte has structured, negotiated, and closed more than 140 transactions with a total value exceeding $20 billion.
Charlotte has extensive experience advising public and private companies, private equity funds, venture capital funds, financial institutions, institutional investors, developers and multilateral agencies on capital structures and financing needs throughout the life cycle of an enterprise or project, from start-up and construction through development, operations, acquisitions, joint ventures, restructurings and investments.
Charlotte's transactional experience includes energy efficiency finance; renewable/clean energy development and financing; energy savings agreements (ESAs); PACE financing; project finance; securitizations; buyout and acquisition finance; private placements and debt securities offerings; lease financings; related derivative transactions; joint ventures and other equity investments; and restructuring transactions, both in and out of bankruptcy. In addition, she has completed numerous cross-border transactions and investments involving the U.S., Europe, Asia and Latin America.
Charlotte's long-standing interest in clean energy began during her tenure as a Fulbright Scholar at the Centre for European Policy Studies in Brussels, Belgium in 1991. She was a consultant to the UN Climate Change Secretariat during the Kyoto Protocol negotiations and several other UN Climate Change Convention negotiations. Charlotte co-authored with Professor Abram Chayes an article on China's role in these negotiations, "China and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change," Energizing China, distributed by Harvard University Press. In May 2012, Charlotte co-authored and was the main architect of a WSGR white paper, "Innovations and Opportunities in Energy Efficiency Finance".

EDUCATION:
J.D., Harvard Law School, 1995
A.B., Social Studies, Harvard University, 1991 Magna Cum Laude; Recipient, Harvard Scholarship for Academic Achievement; Senior Staff Writer, Harvard International Review; Recipient of a Thomas T. Hoopes Prize, given for outstanding theses

ASSOCIATIONS AND MEMBERSHIPS:
Chairperson and Board Director, Asia-America Chamber of Commerce
Fellow, American Bar Foundation
Founding Director, New England Women in Energy & the Environment, 2009-2012
President, Asian American Lawyers Association of Massachusetts (2008-2010)
Member, International Law Committee (2000-2003) and Council on International Affairs (2004-2007), New York City Bar Association
Co-chair, National Committee on Sustainability and Climate Change, National Asian Pacific American Bar Association (NAPABA)

HONORS:
Recognized in the 2008, 2009, and 2010 editions of Chambers USA: American's Leading Lawyers for Business in the Banking and Finance category
Named a "Best Lawyer under 40" by the National Asian Pacific American Bar Association in 2009

SELECT PUBLICATIONS:
Co-author, "Innovations and Opportunities in Energy Efficiency Finance", Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati white paper, May 2012
Co-author, "The Changing Landscape for Credit Rating Agencies," Law360, February 3, 2010
Co-author with A. Chayes, "China and the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change," Energizing China, Harvard University Press, 1998

SELECT SPEAKING ENGAGEMENTS:
"Scaling Up and Crossing the Second Valley of Death as Your Company Commercializes," MIT Clean Energy Prize/WSGR Energy and Clean Tech Entrepreneurs Bootcamp, Cambridge, Massachusetts, March 2012
Program Chair and Moderator, "Sustainability, Scalability, Profitability: Primer on Renewable Energy Transactions," National NAPABA Convention, Atlanta, Georgia, November 2011
"Legal Issues in Biotech," presentation to Chinese American Biomedical Association, Boston, Massachusetts, June 2010
Moderator, "A Conversation with General Counsels - Best Practices on How to Attract and Retain Diverse Legal Talent," National Asian Pacific American Bar Association Convention, Boston, Massachusetts, November 2009
Panelist, "Financing Energy and Brownfield Projects," New England Women in Energy and the Environment, Cambridge, Massachusetts, January 2009

ADMISSIONS:
State Bar of Massachusetts
State Bar of New York

David Manning
Director, Stakeholder and Community Relations Office
Brookhaven National Laboratory

David Manning

Director, Stakeholder and Community Relations Office

David Manning was named Director of Brookhaven National Laboratory's Stakeholder and Community Relations Office in January, 2015. Manning’s responsibilities include developing, implementing, and assessing strategic internal and external communications plans and programs to advance the scientific mission and priority programs and initiatives of the Lab; developing and implementing government and stakeholder relations programs to help increase support for the Lab's programs and priority projects; and overseeing science education and workforce development programs to fulfill the Lab's and U.S. Department of Energy's education and diversity goals.

Manning has worked in both government and the private sector, including serving as the Deputy Minister of Energy for Alberta, Canada, President of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers ( CAPP) and EVP, Corporate Affairs / Chief Environmental Officer  for KeySpan/National Grid. Most recently, he served as the U.S. representative for the Premier of Alberta, deeply involved in energy issues.

Manning earned a B.A. and L.L.B. in law from the University of Alberta, and did post-graduate work in international law at the Australian National University.

Ken McCauley
President & CEO
Princeton Power Systems

Ken McCauley

President & CEO

Ken started his career in process and applications engineering with AT&T Microelectronics and spent five years in the Asia/Pacific region in charge of international business development. Upon his return to the States, Ken initiated a global accounts sales process across AT&T Microelectronics unit, eventually becoming Director of Sales for Telecom and Wireless Applications with Lucent Technologies. This was followed by Director of Field Sales at ANADIGICS, where he was quickly promoted to Vice President of Worldwide Sales and Marketing. Since then, Ken has held various leadership positions with companies, such as IQE PLC, NanoOpto Corporation and Konarka Technologies. Since 2007, Ken has been exclusively focused on renewable energy applications and markets.

Ken graduated with an M.B.A. in Marketing and Finance from the University of Richmond and holds a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from Bucknell University. 

Trip O'Shea
Vice President
Eko Asset Management

Trip is a Vice President at EKO Asset Management Partners, based in New York. His role with EKO is focused on investments and advisory in environmental services and sustainable fisheries. Prior to EKO, Trip worked in the Global Power & Utilities Investment Banking Group at Barclays Capital in New York City, where he advised clients on debt and equity financings and M&A, primarily in the renewable energy space. Earlier in his career, Trip spent over 5 years living in Central America, where he founded a consulting practice dedicated to social-enterprise development in the education, energy, and natural capital sectors, advising clients in government, NGOs, and private firms. He also served as a conservation finance associate with The Nature Conservancy in Guatemala City, with a focus on payments for ecosytem services in the water, sustainable timber, agriculture, and ecotourism sectors throughout Mesoamerica.

Trip received his MBA in finance and MS in sustainable resource systems through the Erb Institute at the University of Michigan, and holds a BA in economics and environmental science from Bates College. He has extensive experience working in Latin America, and has lived in Brazil, El Salvador, Mexico, and Guatemala.

David Ross
Managing Director
Statera Capital

David L. Ross is Managing Director of Statera Capital, a global advisory and impact investment banking firm founded in 2004 in New York City focusing on investments in Sub-Saharan Africa and Managing Director-Frontier Markets at AlphaSource Capital Securities LLC, an institutional brokerage firm focused on ESG and socially responsible investments. Statera Capital has team members in 8 African nations and is active on projects in renewable energy, biofuels, housing, transportation, telecom infrastructure, health care, oil and gas, equipment leasing, and other sectors. David has 15 years private and public sector experience serving clients including HSBC, AIG, JP Morgan Chase, Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, Credit-Suisse, Morgan Stanley, USAID, World Bank, as well as SMEs and project developers. David has an undergraduate degree in Information Systems and International Business from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, an MBA in Finance from NYU-Stern School of Business, and serves as an Adjunct Professor at Carnegie Mellon University teaching topics of globalization and development.

Omar Saadeh
Senior Analyst
Greentech Media Research

Omar Saadeh is a Senior Grid Analyst at GTM Research focusing on distributed generation and demand side management as well as behind the meter analytics. He completed a Master of Engineering degree in power engineering at McGill University, where he was awarded a Graduate Excellence Fellowship and contributed as a staff writer to The McGill Daily. As a bilingual English and French speaker, Omar worked as a building efficiency sales engineer at Johnson Controls in Montreal prior to graduate school.

Omar holds a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from McGill University with a concentration in power engineering and a minor in economics. He has published research for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Conseil International des Grands Réseaux Électriques, focusing on the advantages of plug-in electric vehicles and the economic dispatch of distributed resources in microgrids, respectively.

Graham Smith
Founder & CEO
Open Energy Group

Graham is founder and CEO of Open Energy Group, an online marketplace for accredited and institutional investors that provides access to renewable energy debt investments.  Prior to Open Energy, he started two brokerage firms, Axiom Global and then Phoenix Partners Group, the latter he co-ran for seven years.  While at Phoenix, Graham started and co-ran a renewable energy advisory business, Phoenix Greenworks Capital, which secured $75m of construction finance for 15MW of some of the UK’s first utility-scale solar projects

Daniel Spitzer
Partner
Hodgson Russ LLP

Daniel A. Spitzer:

Mr. Spitzer concentrates his practice on a variety of issues involving environmental law, renewable energy, power generation, sustainable development, land use law, and municipal law. His practice involves numerous renewable energy projects, including representing municipalities, developers, land owners, and financing entities. His work, from project inception through successful litigation, includes some of the largest wind farms in the United States, and he has also worked on fossil fuel, landfill, gas-to-energy, biomass, and solar projects. He successfully represented a municipality in a case of first impression on a municipality's right to regulate power generating facilities based on greenhouse gas emissions.  A primary part of Mr. Spitzer's work focuses on NEPA and SEQRA review and compliance with federal environmental statutes. His work includes environmental assessments for large-scale industrial, commercial, telecommunications and energy projects. He counsels agencies and private clients on compliance with historic preservation laws, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, and other federal and state environmental statutes and regulations. Mr. Spitzer is a frequent speaker and author on renewable energy, land use and zoning, and municipal law. He drafted the inaugural chapters on Green Buildings and Sustainable Design, and on Municipal Annexation for the fourth edition of New York Zoning Law and Practice, published by West in 2009; authored "State Tax Laws Give Certainty," North American Windpower, May 2010, and "Examining NYPA's Project Rules," North American Windpower, June 2009; and co-authored "Debate Over Federal vs. State Regulation of Fracing Heats Up," The Pipeline, Fall 2013; and "A Guide to Regulating Big Box Stores, Franchise Architecture, and Formula Businesses," New York Zoning Law and Practice Report, 2007. He is listed in Buffalo Business First's Who's Who in Law (Energy) and 2012 and 2013 Upstate New York Super Lawyers.  He earned his J.D., magna cum laude, from SUNY Buffalo Law School, where he served as editor-in chief of the Buffalo Law Review.

Scott Tew
Executive Director, Center for Energy Efficiency & Sustainability
Ingersoll Rand

Founder of the Center for Energy Efficiency & Sustainability (CEES), a unique global organization that sits in the Office of the CTO and is designed to make sustainability core to the enterprise. Lead company-wide efforts to engage employees, and set processes and policies to reduce the resource demand of current and future company products, and within our own facilities, locations and business practices.

Lead the company’s communications and advocacy strategy related to sustainable business practices. Serve as internal and external thought leader in the space of sustainability, and connect leaders and strategic brands (Club Car, Ingersoll Rand, Schlage, Trane and Thermo King) with NGO partners, government agencies, academic institutions, media outlets, and strategic partners to meet growth and business targets. Lead efforts related to creation of company-wide green portfolio, product standards, customer unmet needs, educational venues, and primary research around energy and sustainability.

Gabriel Thoumi
CFA, Senior Sustainability Analyst
Calvert Fund

Gabriel Thoumi, CFA, Senior Sustainability Analyst
Mr.Thoumi, CFA, Certified Ecologist, LEED AP; works on the Environment, Water, and Climate Change Team integrating financial analysis with Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) factors. At Calvert, he engages corporations on the financial materiality of their sustainability practices including emissions reductions, greening supply chains, and sustainable land-use. Mr. Thoumi is appointed to the United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative Investment Commission Board 2015-2017. He is also an Expert Reviewer to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. He represents Calvert as an Advisor to The Global Innovation Lab for Climate Finance and the Natural Capital Declaration. Finally, Mr. Thoumi engages with financial exchanges on natural capital reporting of member companies. He began his finance career in 2000 working in debt and equity institutional funds management and risk management at various public and private sector institutions. By 2006, his career focused on developing rigorous climate finance, carbon markets, and sustainability initiatives in 20 countries. He has deep methodological, scientific, and financial knowledge implementing green investment strategies for capital markets and governments. He holds an M.B.A. and M.Sc. from the University of Michigan

Pierre Trevet
Founder & CEO
HELIOS Exchange, Inc

Pierre Trevet is a pioneer and entrepreneur in the field of environmental finance and sustainability investing, totaling 20+ years experience in financial services and IT industry. He has co-engineered numerous investment approaches to address sustainability problems, including the algorithms for world’s first global equity fund based on eco-efficiency principles (Storebrand EcoValue Fund, 1995), eco- enhanced equity funds (Credit Agricole Green Planet Fund, 2004), and world’s first carbon bond index (JP Morgan Carbon Beta Bond Index, 2008). Pierre Trevet is the Founder and CEO of HELIOS Exchange, Inc. which he started in 2012 with the mission to use information technology to create the needed investor confidence to catalyze energy efficiency financing. Prior to that Pierre was the Head of Sustainability Finance for over 3 years at C3 Energy. At C3, Pierre has been instrumental in developing C3’s initial product roadmap and product strategy. Prior to C3, he was Managing Director at Innovest Strategic Value Advisors for 10 years, heading the European activities and the carbon finance practice. Prior to that, he was CEO and Founder of Ecolistic, a corporate environmental management and accounting software. Previously, he has worked in Norway as an Environmental Finance Analyst at Storebrand, as an Energy and Environmental Management Consultant at Statkraft Engineering and held diverse roles as Project Engineer at Doris Engineering. Mr. Trevet holds a MSc (1990) in Mechanical & Industrial Engineering from ParisTech, Ecole Nationale Supérieure d’Arts et Métiers, and an MSc (1995) (Hon.) in Energy & Environment Management from the Norwegian School of Management.

Barry Worthington
Executive Director
UNITED STATES ENERGY ASSOCIATION

Barry K. Worthington serves as the Executive Director of the United States Energy Association (USEA)
where he directs the Association's domestic and international activities. He has served in this capacity
since September 1988. Previously, he served as a Vice President of the Thomas Alva Edison Foundation
and prior to that served in several capacities with Houston Lighting & Power Company, now known as
Center Point.

Worthington has also written extensively on energy and environmental matters, and addresses many
conferences on national and international energy issues.